A very good account of the Lipizzan dynasties
written by the Lipizzan International Federation:

Known throughout the world for its majesty, elegance, beauty and intelligence, the Lipizzaner inspires awe and admiration everywhere it is seen.

The legacy of the days when it was produced by the Hapsburgs for court ceremonial duties are still very much with it today. Its stately elegance and the ease with which it slips into training of the highest calibre, reflect its meticulously established bloodlines, the result of careful selection for the Viennese Court, so long ago.


The original line produced a noble animal of Spanish descent and the most successful, Pluto arrived in Lipizza in 1772. The first of the establishing sires of the Lipizzaner breed. He was born in 1765 and was raised in the Danish Royal Stud of Fredericksborg and was of Spanish descent. As Pluto was the first, and as he came from Denmark, which up to now has not been mentioned in this Story, I will tell you a bit about it's history in connection with Pluto.


The Castle of Fredericksborg, where Pluto was raised, was built by the Danish King Christian IV. It is situated to the North of Copenhagen on the Isle of Sjaellund in the city of Hillerod. The Castle was constructed between 1600 and 1620.The Castle was the summer residence of the Danish Royal Family and up until 1840 it was where the Kings of Denmark were crowned.

A great turning point in the life of the Danish people occurred when Christian IV took the throne. Copenhagen especially felt his presence as he was a very devoted architect and he increased this prospering city in size and prominence. His passion was in constructing buildings and many were credited to him. It was he who established Fredericksborg in the 1500's.It was surrounded by a large beautiful park laid out in French style with totally straight paths that led directly to the stables. The horses bred there were big sturdy work horses. The best were used for the Royal Stud. It is here that Pluto was born and lived until he was five years old. He was then sent to Lipizza in May 1772 along with five mares from the Danish Stud. He established the Pluto Lipizzaner Dynasty in Lipizza.


The first Conversano came to Lipizza from Naples in 1774. He was born in 1767 and was black in colour.

Empress Maria Theresa married off her favourite daughter, Maria Carolina, who was sister to the ill fated Maria Antoinette, at age 16 to the King of Naples. The new Queen took a number of diplomats with her from the Viennese Court. Amongst this entourage was Count Kaunits.

The Count started a stud and was so successful that he eventually possessed one of the best studs of spanish horses in the Kingdom of Naples.

In 1774 he offered a magnificent black stallion to the Royal Court. This stallion was called CONVERSANO and became a serving stallion at Lipizza at the young age of seven. It was he who introduced black to the almost exclusively grey stud.


Favory Senior came to Lipizza in 1783 from the Old Imperial Austrian Stud at Kladrub in Bohemia which was established in 1578, two years earlier that Lipizza. Favory was born in 1779 and was a dun colour. In 1893 Favory XI was brought from Hungary to Lipizza as the serving stallion.


Maestoso Senior was born in Spain in 1773. He was transferred from the Royal Stud in Kladrub to Lipizza in 1774 at age 10. Unfortunately the line died out at Lipizza in 1837 Maestoso X who was born in 1819 was transferred from Mezohegyes in Hungary to Lipizza to re-instate the Maestoso line. So, every living Maestoso traces back to this stallion from Hungary.


In 1785 Lipizza received three stud stallions. One was the 13 year old Neapolitano from Naples. At the time, Frederico Grisone's Riding Academy had been established there for 200 years. This stallion had to prove himself in this excellent school at age 13 and carrying the not so popular bay colour. He amply justified the choice of his Austrian selectors which is evidenced in the fact that all Neapolitanos today carry his noble genes.

So far, the founding stallions of the Lipizzaner breed have been from Europe, but now we come to the beautiful Arab, which has established itself so well within the breed.


Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk, Godolphin Barb. The ancestors of the thoroughbred. The bloodlines of the Arab. The principle genetic material to infuse into the Lipizzaner if outside blood was to be added. Several Arab sires were tried but only one asserted himself within the breed.

So they chose Prince Schwarzenberg's imported Arab stallion - Siglavy. This fiery little stallion only measured 14.3.hands. He was born in 1810 and he arrived at Lipizza in 1816. His diminutive size and dainty body aroused quite a lot of talk among the stable hands and riders who were used to working with the much larger Spanish blooded stallions and mares. He proved his worth and went on to be the founder stallion of the Siglavy line.

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The lines described above are what are termed as the Classical Dynasties. There are two other stallion lines to complete the eight accepted dynasties. They are:


The Hungarian Jankovics family used to own Ureglak in the county of Somogy. They also owned Teresovacz Stud in Croatia/Slavonia. The family intensively bred Lipizzaners. They also bred from original Spanish blooded mares and mares they purchased directly from Lipizza. From these bloodlines they produced a new line which was called Tulipan. Despite this, not one Tulipan stallion could be found in the Hungarian Lipizzaner studs.

It was not until the Summer of 1969 that a black stallion born to a Caprice mare joined the herd at Szilvasvarad and thereby started the Tulipan line. The black colour was retained and so Szilvasvarad became known as the home of the black Tulipan line.


The Incitato line originated from Transylvania. It derived its name from 'Incitatus' which was the name of a horse owned by Roman Emperor Caligula. A marble stable, an ivory manger, a purple robe and a chain of pearls around his neck were the adornments of the Emperor's favourite horse. The founder of this line was born in Mezohegyes in 1802. He had a Transylvanian sire and a dam of Spanish origin.

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The mare lines used to establish the Lipizzaner breed, were just as carefully chosen as the male dynasties.

The female lines were formed at Lipizza and were named 1 to 18 according to their origin. Unfortunately, three of the original lines died out (Rosza, Khal il Massaid and Mersucha). Fifteen remained. Five came from Kladrub, three from Karst, three from Radautz, one from Denmark and two from the East.

Two of the mares, Africa and Almerina went on to found female lines at the Imperial Stud at Kladrub which in the late 1860's received the heavy Italian dray horses from Lipizza in order to produce a distinct type which was named the Kladruber.

The pedigree's of the mares of Lipizza had to be impeccable, as in the case of the stallions, and only the best were retained to carry on the Lipizzaner blood lines.


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